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Looking into the past: how James Webb is rewriting our understanding of ancient galaxies

The large galaxy at the front of the image is LEDA 2046648, and it looks just over a billion years back in time, while most of the others are even further away, and therefore look further back in time. Credit: ESA/Webb, NASA & CSA, A. Martel
The large galaxy at the front of the image is LEDA 2046648, and it looks just over a billion years back in time, while most of the others are even further away, and therefore look further back in time. Credit: ESA/Webb, NASA & CSA, A. Martel

The launch of the James Webb Space Telescope has allowed astronomers to observe the universe so closely that we are approaching the time when the earliest galaxies are believed to have formed. For most of the history of the universe, there seems to be a consistent correlation between the number of stars a galaxy has produced and the amount of heavy elements it has produced.

But for the first time we now see signs that this relationship between the number of stars and the elements does not exist in the earliest galaxies. The reason is probably that these galaxies are just in the process of formation, and they haven't had time to create the heavy elements yet.

The universe is full of galaxies – vast collections of stars and gas – and when we look deep into the cosmos, we see them near and far. Because it took longer for light to reach us, the more distant a galaxy is, we are actually looking back in time, and this allows us to build a visual narrative of their development throughout the history of the universe.

This diagram shows the galaxies observed in the "elements - stellar mass diagram": the further to the right a galaxy is, the more massive it is, and the higher it is, the more heavy elements it contains. The gray icons represent galaxies in today's universe, while the red ones show new observations of ancient galaxies. These clearly have far fewer heavy elements than later galaxies, but they more or less fit the theoretical predictions, represented by the blue bar.

Observations have shown us that galaxies for the last 12 billion years - that is, 5/6 of the age of the universe - live their lives in a kind of equilibrium: there seems to be a fundamental and close connection between the number of stars they have created on the one hand, and the number of heavy elements they have created on the other hand. In this context, "heavy elements" means anything heavier than hydrogen and helium.

This connection makes sense because the universe originally consisted of only these two elements, the lightest. All the heavier elements, such as carbon, oxygen and iron, were later formed by the stars.

The very first galaxies should therefore be "pure" of heavy elements. But only recently can we look back at such a distant time. In addition to distance, the reason is that the longer light travels through space, the redder it becomes. Regarding the most distant galaxies, we have to look deep into the AA part of the spectrum, and only after the launch of James Webb do we have a telescope large enough and sensitive that can look that far.

And the space telescope did not disappoint: several times James Webb broke his record for the most distant galaxy, and now we seem to be entering an era where some of the earliest galaxies were formed.

Diffuse gas from intergalactic space descends toward the center, triggering star formation and becoming part of the galaxy's rotating disk. When stars die, they return their gas to the galaxy (and intergalactic space), which is now enriched with heavy elements. Credit: Tumlinson et al. (2017).
Diffuse gas from intergalactic space descends toward the center, triggering star formation and becoming part of the galaxy's rotating disk. When stars die, they return their gas to the galaxy (and intergalactic space), which is now enriched with heavy elements. Credit: Tumlinson et al. (2017).

for the scientific article

More of the topic in Hayadan:

10 תגובות

  1. The stars have always amazed humans, and always will - the wonder never ends.
    Therefore, those who want to study the stars should ignore all studies,
    and start exploring as if he were the first person to explore the stars.
    Most studies to date have been wrong.
    Those who want to really explore the stars must ignore all the accepted theories, and propose a completely new theory.
    This is what I did, and I introduced a new physics, and a new geometry of circles.
    In the new physics, matter is not a quantitative concept, and it appears as a physical form
    If a geometric form is formed from a quantity of closed length, containing a quantity of area, then a physical form is formed from combining quantities of passive time and energy.
    Passive time is physical time that can be imagined as a thin thin cloud that fills the infinite space, in any direction in space it will be possible to measure passive time with a value of 0.0033 microseconds per meter.
    Passive tense is quantitative only, and there is no distinction of past, present, and future.

    The active time with the concepts of past, present, future was invented by man, so that human society would function better, in physical reality.
    All the physical theories that use the active time, (Einstein) were wrong,
    Because active time does not exist at all in physical reality.
    In physical reality, passive time exists, and together with energy, they create matter.
    This material is continuous (not particulate) and has no gravity.
    Passive time and energy fill the infinite space, and are the medium of what is
    In total rest, in which waves of passive time move - which transmit the light.
    Another expansion of the neural theory, appears in the book Moet Makr, and he
    "Esbar's magical journey on the wings of natural knowledge"

    A. Asbar

  2. Just because I'm willing to consider that we see beyond the universe that began with our big bang, doesn't mean I'm abandoning computational physics. Maybe I don't understand how continued expansion produces more distance than I imagined.
    Our universe may be expanding faster than the speed of light. It is possible that we see a galaxy outside our universe with laws of physics similar to ours - of course we have seen in the past. But I do not neglect the computational ability of physics in the mainstream.
    Viewing to greater distances with the improved resolution of a space telescope, forces us to write physics that fits the higher scales. I am a follower of physics, and it is legitimate that some questions do not have answers yet.
    It is quite possible that modified gravity gives a satisfactory answer.
    Regarding the idea of ​​time as existing simultaneously in the past, present and future, this is an idea of ​​mainstream physics. No need to go to other districts. That human consciousness and evolution made us aware of the present, because our bodies would otherwise be destroyed. Professor Nima Arkani Hamed from Princeton University makes use of it, in the movie Interstellar with Matthew McConaughey we see the Tesseract in which all three times exist simultaneously in the Gargantuan Black Hole. In the series with Morgan Freeman in the episode about time, physicists from the mainstream are interviewed who explain that in the explanation time exists simultaneously in the past, present, and future.
    And because our body is aware of itself in the present. In short, I am a follower of modern physics but am willing to consider that we are seeing a part of the universe that was not created in our big bang, and am waiting for a thought experiment that will decide which of the two options is correct. As for the genius of seeing the elasticity of the fabric of space-time, before the age of quantum field theory, it's amazing. Today they show that there is a texture that connects the points to the space-time sheet in the space known as ADS CT, anti de Sitter. The detractors and I don't mean to upset but to religious sources (I'm a traditionalist) that physics is nonsense because it fails in ultra-large rocks, I don't buy it. This is a successful world exploration concept in my opinion.

  3. Instead of the big bang theory, a physical theory of creation

    Physical reality is created from 5 continuous quantitative things.
    The hallmark of a continuous quantitative thing (dkr) is simple.
    Any quantity that we choose from Dakhar, there is always a larger quantity, and there is a smaller quantity.
    Any quantity that is chosen from Daqar, is always between a zero quantity and an infinite quantity.
    There are 5 dekars in the world, 3 in the geometric field and 2 in the physical field,
    Length, area, volume, belong to geometry, time and energy belong to physics.
    Geometry and physics are the two exact sciences.

    Physical reality appeared after the empty infinite space was filled by two continuous quantitative things, namely energy and passive time.
    Passive time is real time that exists right in physical reality.
    The time we all know does not exist in physical reality, and it disappears as soon as you think about it. This time exists only in the consciousness of the person, and therefore the name ...active time fits it.

    After the infinite space was filled with energy and passive time, the star matter began to appear, which was formed by combining amounts of passive time and energy.
    The matter of the stars is continuous, and has no gravity.

    The combinations of the amounts of passive time and energy created the familiar elements
    Like, gold, carbon, iron and more. Any such conjunction is a physical form, and therefore
    Matter is not a quantitative concept.

    Perpetual motion was embedded in the continuous matter, and each star was always moving.

    This is how the energy of matter movement appeared, followed by many types of energy.

    The law of conservation of energy was embedded in the universe, and it guarantees an eternal universe.

    A physical theory of creation is described in detail in the book.
    "Esbar's magical journey on the wings of natural knowledge"

    A. Asbar

    Physical time and theatrical time
    Physical time is time that exists in physical reality, as absolute rest and absolute cold. - and it fills the infinite space.
    Theatrical time with the concepts of past, present, future, exists only in the mind of man, and it does not exist in physical reality.

  4. I'm not confused. I am currently watching the series How the Day Works, Season 8, Episode 3, Edge of the Universe, Saturday, December 2.12.23, 1.55, 31:XNUMX p.m. Exactly what is written in the article. I heard from them the explanation you write down. And I read what Asbar writes here and I must say that even though I feel like getting mad at Asbar they say crap and maybe he is right even though he can't present equations. . In my impression only we are seeing maybe maybe a galaxy that does not come from our big bang. It is explained in the chapter that the speed of expansion of the universe is greater than the speed of light and is accelerating. And what is outside the universe. We will never know because it spreads faster than the speed of light. And the expansion accelerator. What is beyond the universe that came out of our big bang. Maybe more and more will happen. So why is it that if you see a galaxy XNUMX billion light years away, maybe it was not formed in our big bang.

  5. Joseph, you are confusing a few things: a galaxy that took 12 billion years for light to reach us is currently 33 billion light years away from us, because the universe had time to expand and it moved away from us. The light coming out of it at this very moment will never reach us, because by then, under the accelerated expansion of the universe, we will be moving away from that galaxy at a speed that exceeds the speed of light.

    Secondly, today we are talking about the "crisis in cosmology" where there is a discrepancy in the age of the universe, but this discrepancy is in the region of 13.8 billion years. It would take a very drastic change in cosmology and understanding of the universe to reach much larger numbers, and we're not there yet.

    And one more thing, an article that explains something about a diagram, which is not there at all, shows that apparently no one went through the machine translation and checked it.

  6. A main conclusion regarding the age of the universe is that we may not know what it is. It is older than 33 billion years. If it is determined that the age of the universe is 13 billion years according to the current theory of general relativity, and galaxies are found 33 billion light years away, then perhaps what I wrote down is in my opinion. The gap is due to the fact that the current theory of general relativity is not final and it is required to introduce modified gravity and explain why the update is correct. Gravity itself changes with distance not like an unscientific force, but as Professor ERik Verlinde explains, because it is a force resulting from entropy, and entropy works according to a logarithmic scale. But then many researchers have to abandon dark matter. This in itself does nothing more than invalidate the life's work of hundreds of physicists. It's terrible but possible. But this undermines our understanding of the fabric of the universe Anti de sitter which explains why the void itself is flexible and connected like a flexible sheet and space-time is a sheet. Einstein imagined the flexibility of space-time, in a way that no man had done before him, but the explanation of why this happens is the explanation of quantum theory.

  7. Who is qualified to investigate the structure of the universe? Everyone is invited to explore the structure of the universe.
    And I ask
    When will the cosmologists present to the science readers an overall picture of the universe, which looks like one and only huge galaxy. Driving in a straight line and in one direction, at a speed of 12 times the speed of light.
    This amazing universe of one galaxy runs on its own, and has no gravity.
    All the stars of the universe are in this single galaxy and they do not move in an orbit shaped like a straight line. They also do not move in a path that has the shape of a closed circular line.
    The stars of this universe move in a screw-shaped orbit, which has 3 data.
    The diameter of the screw track, the advance angle of the screw track, the speed of the star.
    Each star has its own three motion data, but all together make up the universe of one giant galaxy, moving in a straight line at an absolute velocity of C12
    Absolute speed cannot be measured, and cannot be discerned. Therefore, man has never discovered the absolute speed of a huge galaxy that is the universe
    The huge galaxy moves forever in infinite space, full of passive time and energy.
    The passive time is absolute cold physical time, and absolute rest.
    In the absolute passive time, passive time waves move that transmit the light.
    The material of the stars of the universe is created from what is abundant in the infinite space.
    Stars are created naturally from the combination of amounts of what is in the infinite space - the combination of amounts of passive time and energy,
    Each such combination creates a physical form, such as gold, carbon, hydrogen.
    This description fits the neural universe, and does not fit the Newtonian universe.
    The neural universe is described in many articles published in science, and it is a universe of one and only galaxy with marvelous physical data, which includes a new kind of time, which is the passive time.
    Combining quantities of passive time and energy creates the continuous substance without gravity, and thus a new physics was created, which is neural physics.
    Neural physics joins neural geometry, where pi varies between 3.14 and 3.16

    And anyone who wants to explore the structure of the universe, please rebuild.

    A. Asbar

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