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The "Christmas Tree" galaxy cluster: NASA's 'Webb' and 'Hubble' join forces for a dizzying masterpiece

The stunning image represents one of the most comprehensive views of the universe ever taken, revealing a rich landscape of galaxies along with more than a dozen variable objects discovered for the first time

A multi-color view of MACS0416, a galaxy cluster about 4.3 billion light-years from Earth. The image was created by combining infrared observations from NASA's James Webb Space Telescope with visible light data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The resulting prismatic panorama of the blues and reds gives clues to the distances of the galaxies. Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI, Jose M. Diego (IFCA), Jordan CJ D'Silva (UWA), Anton M. Koekemoer (STScI), Jake Summers (ASU), Rogier Windhorst (ASU), Haojing Yan ( University of Missouri
A multi-color view of MACS0416, a galaxy cluster about 4.3 billion light-years from Earth. The image was created by combining infrared observations from NASA's James Webb Space Telescope with visible light data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The resulting prismatic panorama of the blues and reds gives clues to the distances of the galaxies. Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI, Jose M. Diego (IFCA), Jordan CJ D'Silva (UWA), Anton M. Koekemoer (STScI), Jake Summers (ASU), Rogier Windhorst (ASU), Haojing Yan ( University of Missouri

The stunning image represents one of the most comprehensive views of the universe ever taken, revealing a rich landscape of galaxies along with more than a dozen variable objects discovered for the first time.

Once again, astronomers combined the observing powers of the James Webb Space Telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to create one of the most detailed and colorful portraits of the universe, just in time for Christmas.

The new image, dubbed the Christmas Tree Galaxy Cluster by the research team, combines infrared light detected by NASA's James Webb Space Telescope with visible light data from NASA's Hubble to show the MACS0416, a galaxy cluster located about 4.3 billion light years from Earth. Because the cluster is able to magnify light from more distant background galaxies through a phenomenon known as 'gravitational dimming', it has allowed researchers to detect magnified supernovae and even individual stars at very high magnification.

A side-by-side comparison of the MACS0416 galaxy cluster as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope in optical light (left) and the James Webb Space Telescope in infrared light (right) reveals different details. Both images show hundreds of galaxies, but Webb's image shows galaxies that are not visible or only barely visible in the Hubble image. That's because Webb's infrared vision can detect galaxies that are too far away or too dusty for Hubble to see. (Light from distant galaxies is redshifted due to the expansion of the universe.) Webb's total exposure time was about 22 hours, compared to 122 hours of exposure for the Hubble image. Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI
A side-by-side comparison of the MACS0416 galaxy cluster as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope in optical light (left) and the James Webb Space Telescope in infrared light (right) reveals different details. Both images show hundreds of galaxies, but Webb's image shows galaxies that are not visible or only barely visible in the Hubble image. That's because Webb's infrared vision can detect galaxies that are too far away or too dusty for Hubble to see. (Light from distant galaxies is redshifted due to the expansion of the universe.) Webb's total exposure time was about 22 hours, compared to 122 hours of exposure for the Hubble image. Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI

Scientific insights from the cluster

"We call MACS0416 the 'Christmas Tree Galaxy Cluster,' both because it's so colorful and because of these twinkling lights we find inside it," said University of Missouri astronomer Dr. Houjing Yan, lead author of one of the two papers describing it. the scientific results. The paper, co-authored by Texas A&M University astronomer Lipan Wong, has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.

Wong, a member of Texas A&M University's Department of Physics and Astronomy and the George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy since 2006, is part of a time-domain astronomy team using the Webb Telescope to discover the earliest supernovae in the universe, with the oldest on record dating back to where the universe was more than 3 billion years old. The international collaboration, known as the "Priority Extragalactic Primary Regions for Replenishment and Reinization Research" (PEARLS), is led by University of Arizona astronomer Dr. Roger Windhorst, and is credited with acquiring the data that led to the discoveries.

Innovative techniques and forecasts

One of the team's tricks was to use the undisputed observational power of the Web to look for objects that change in observed brightness over time, known as variable objects. In a paper published in 2017 ahead of the Webb telescope's launch, Wong and his paper colleagues predicted that the telescope would find several such variable objects in a single shot using its powerful primary imager, known as the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). Wong points to image MACS0416 and the 14 variable objects it contains as proof positive, noting that the discoveries exceed the team's predictions.

"The Webb Telescope discovers a large number of changing objects, mainly supernovae, in the universe," Wong said. "He not only finds supernovae, he also finds stars in distant galaxies that are magnified by the gravitational field of nearby foreground galaxies."

The discoveries are made through repeated observations of an area of ​​the sky towards the galaxy cluster MACS0416. The North Orbital Pole (NEP), an area where the Webb Telescope can continuously point there and take data throughout the year, is ideal for future time-domain observations. Wong says the unprecedented sensitivity makes it possible to detect some supernovae, such as those from the explosions of white dwarf stars across the universe, even as far back as when the universe began forming its first stars.

Answering key questions in astronomy

"There are two fundamental questions in astronomy: how did the first stars form?, and what is the nature of the forces driving the expansion of the universe?", said Wong. "The changing objects that the Webb Telescope is able to detect will provide the data needed to address these questions.

"These discoveries show that the Webb Telescope is the most powerful tool for studying the faint objects that change at the cosmic dawn, as the universe awakens from the Starless Dark Ages to the present day. By observing supernovae, it is possible to study the process of the development of the first stars and also the expansion of the universe until the time when the universe was younger than 1 billion years."

The study of supernovae and distant stars

Wong says some of these supernovae are likely the result of the deaths of low-mass dwarf stars, which turn into white dwarfs and explode in thermonuclear explosions. The magnified stars make it possible to study individual stars in the distant universe. These ancient stars are probably also very massive stars that produce extremely bright variable objects through a process called the star pair production instability.

"We anticipate that these 'routinely detectable' variable objects will hold enormous potential in providing answers to questions concerning the end of the cosmic dark age and the physics of the expansion of the dark universe," Wong said.

for the scientific article

More of the topic in Hayadan:

6 תגובות

  1. The science of physical creation

    Parashat Beresheit of physics and geometry

    In the beginning, God created
    the infinite geometric emptiness.

    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of length.
    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of space.
    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of volume.

    The imagination filled the geometric emptiness with geometric shapes such as a circle, triangle, square, etc.

    The shape of the circle is created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    The shape of the triangle was created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    The square shape is created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    And so on many forms were created.
    And God will see that the infinite geometric emptiness contains only geometric shapes, and will fill the emptiness with a passive time that does not move from its place, and is completely at rest.

    Thus physical creation began, with passive time filling infinite geometric volume.

    And God will turn passive time into absolute cold, and this is how the limit of cold in the world is determined.

    And the passive time was absolute rest and absolute cold, and it occupied an infinite geometric volume.
    And God said - the deed we have done is good.

    And God saw the lonely and sad state of the passive time that is on the border of the cold, and added to it the joyful, multi-faceted quantitative energy.

    And God will drown in the cheerful quantum energy a physical law that says:
    Many appearances will the cheerful quantum energy have, but the ever-changing quantity will be preserved.

    And God forbid that the cheerful quantitative energy does change its appearances, while taking care to preserve the changing amount.
    And God said, the thing is very good.
    And God commanded the passive time and energy to create the material that appears in many physical forms, such as gold, iron, carbon, hydrogen, and more,

    And the creation began.
    The quantitative passive time, connected with the quantitative joyful energy, and from a certain combination of quantities, a physical form of gold was created.

    And once again the quantitative passive time was connected with the quantitative joyful energy, and from this new combination of quantities, a physical form of iron was created.

    And once again the quantitative passive time was connected with the quantitative cheerful energy, and a new combination of quantities created a physical form of carbon.

    And so the passive time and the cheerful energy created many and varied physical forms, and many and surprising types of matter appeared in the geometric space,

    And so the geometric space became a physical space, which provides material for the creation of stars, with the help of combinations of amounts of passive time and energy.

    And the stars began to fill the infinite space full of passive time, and they stood frozen in place.
    And God commanded the frozen stars to start moving - only in a screw-shaped orbit, which has 3 data.
    The diameter of the screw track, advance angle, and speed.

    And the stars began to move and never stopped moving.
    They did not move in a straight line path, nor in a closed circular path. Each planet moves in a spiral orbit that has three unique data only to it - a unique diameter, a unique angle of advancement, and a unique speed.

    This orbital shape turned all the stars in the world into one dynamic disc-shaped unit.

    And God commanded this discus to move forever in a straight line in infinite space full of passive time and energy,

    Within this disk that moves in a straight line, the stars move in helical orbits. This discus, in which all the stars of the world are located, was named... Universe,
    The speed of the universe in a straight line is absolute, and the person does not notice it (C12 estimated value)

    The number of stars in the universe is finite but not fixed.
    The universe moves in infinite space full of passive time and energy, from which new stars are formed.
    During the absolute movement of the universe, stars in the universe also disintegrate, and they give their energy, and their passive time, to the infinite space.

    The infinite space is where stars are born, and it is also where they disintegrate and disappear.

    And man has not yet been created.
    The active time has not yet been created either,
    Only the passive time and the joyful energy were created, and they create the material of the stars..

    Light was also created, as waves of passive time,
    Waves of passive time move in the absolute rest and absolute cold of passive time, filling infinite space.

    Sunlight is waves of passive time, moving in an infinite space full of passive time, which is completely still and completely cold.

    There is no void in the world, and it is full of passive time and energy.

    And man had not yet been created, and had not yet spoken,
    When man was created, he received natural knowledge from the Creator.
    With this natural knowledge man invented a language of words,

    But man did not know that the language of words is based on actions that lead to natural knowledge.
    And since the person did not know the secret of the words, the words brought the Tower of Babel, which confused the person.

    The words also brought the active time that exists only in man's imagination, and does not exist in physical space.

    The active tense always presents the word trap that confuses man, and reminds him of the Tower of Babel.

    The man who was created on a planet is the one who invented the active time. Has the words past, present, future.
    Past and future are in man's imagination, when
    In physical reality there is only the present.

    Man, who was created on a planet that is in eternal motion, is trapped in the trap of words, and has never been able to free himself from it.

    Man loves the trap of words because it contains love and hope, anger and jealousy, and the escape hatches to the lie, to the truth, and to free imagination.

    With the trap of words man entered heaven, and the trap of words expelled him from heaven.
    The trap of words always works, and since then man has been looking for a new good language, and he has not yet found it.

    A. Asbar

  2. Lord Esbar, are you willing to please leave us with your pagan nonsense, you are dumbing down the brain with this idolatry, go to a religious site and listen to some delusional rabbi who talks about the seed of a virgin and other garbage where you belong..

  3. water? Why not wine?
    Here is what I sent to Prof. Zvi Maza

    The Genesis chapter penetrated into the hearts of people,
    And it hints at the right way to explore the universe
    The physical - geometric, and is a way of creation.

    Parashat Beresheit of physics and geometry

    In the beginning, God created
    the infinite geometric emptiness.

    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of length.
    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of space.
    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of volume.

    The imagination filled the geometric emptiness with geometric shapes such as a circle, triangle, square, etc.

    The shape of the circle is created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    The shape of the triangle was created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    The square shape is created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    And God will see that the infinite geometric emptiness contains only geometric shapes, and will fill it with a passive time that stands in its place, and is completely at rest.

    And God will turn passive time into absolute cold, and this is how the limit of cold in the world is determined.

    Thus began a wondrous physical creation of absolute rest and absolute cold passive time, filling infinite geometric space.
    And God said - the deed we have done is good.

    And God saw the lonely state of the passive time that is on the edge of the cold, and added to it the cheerful energy with many faces.

    And God will drown in the cheerful energy the law that says:
    The cheerful energy may change faces, but the changing quantity will never be preserved.

    And God saw that the cheerful quantitative energy alternated its appearances, while taking care to preserve the alternating quantity, and said that it is good.

    And God commanded the passive time and energy to create the material that appears in many physical forms, such as gold, iron, carbon, hydrogen, and more,
    And the creation of the material began.
    The quantitative passive time, connected with the quantitative joyful energy, and from a certain combination of quantities, a physical form of gold was created.

    And once again the quantitative passive time was connected with the quantitative joyful energy, and from this new combination of quantities, a physical form of iron was created.

    And once again the quantitative passive time was connected with the quantitative cheerful energy, and a new combination of quantities created a physical form of carbon.

    And so the passive time and the cheerful energy created many and varied physical forms, and many and surprising types of matter appeared in the geometric space,

    And so the geometric space became a physical space, which provides material for the creation of stars, with the help of combinations of amounts of passive time and energy.

    And passive time and energy filled the infinite space with matter, from which the stars were formed

    And God commanded the stars to always be in motion
    And only in a track with a screw shape, which has 3 data.
    The diameter of the screw track, advance angle, and speed.
    and the stars began to move,
    Not in a straight line track, nor in a closed round line track, but only in a screw track with the three data - track diameter, advance angle, and speed.

    This orbital shape made all the stars into a single disc-shaped dynamical unit.
    This discus-shaped dynamic unit moves forever in a straight line in infinite space full of passive time and energy.

    Within this dynamic unit that is all bent in a straight line, the stars do not move in a straight line. Each star moves in an orbit that has a unique screw shape and it is this orbit shape that creates a disc-shaped structure from all the stars.

    The very structure of a discus moves in a straight line.
    The speed of the structure is absolute and cannot be measured

    This dynamic disc-shaped structure in which all the stars in the world are located, was named... Universe.
    Hypothesis - the speed of the universe C12

    The number of stars in the universe is finite but not fixed.
    The universe moves in infinite space full of passive time and energy. During the movement of the universe, new stars are formed from the passive time and energy present in space.

    During the movement of the universe, stars also disintegrate, and they give space their energy, and their passive time.

    And man has not yet been created.
    The active time has not yet been created either,
    Only the passive time and the joyful energy were created, and they create the material of the stars..

    Light was also created,
    As waves of passive time, moving in the middle of passive time - which is completely still and completely cold

    Sunlight is waves of passive time, moving in an infinite space full of passive time - which is absolute rest and absolute cold.

    There is no void in the world, and it is full of passive time and energy.

    And man had not yet been created, and had not yet spoken,
    When man was created, he received natural knowledge from the Creator.
    With this natural knowledge, man invented a language of words, but man did not know that the language of words is based on actions that lead to natural knowledge.
    .
    And since the man did not know the secret of the words, the words brought the Tower of Babel, which embarrassed the man.
    The words also brought the active time that exists only in man's imagination, and does not exist in physical space.

    The active tense always presents the word trap that confuses man, and reminds him of the Tower of Babel.

    The man who was created on a planet is the one who invented the active time. Has the words past, present, future.
    Past and future are in man's imagination, when
    In physical reality there is only the present.

    Man, who was created on a planet that is in eternal motion, is trapped in the trap of words, and has never been able to free himself from it.

    Man loves the trap of words because it contains love and hope, anger and jealousy, and the escape hatches to the lie, to the truth, and to free imagination.
    With the trap of words man entered heaven, and the trap of words expelled him from heaven.

    The trap of words always works, and since then man has been looking for a new good language, and he has not yet found it.

    A. Asbar

  4. The amazing pictures are just pictures, and we are all looking for the story of the pictures

    The Genesis chapter penetrated into the hearts of people,
    And it shows the right way to explore the universe.

    Parashat Beresheit of physics and geometry

    In the beginning, God created
    the infinite geometric emptiness.

    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of length.
    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of space.
    Geometric emptiness had an infinite amount of volume.

    The imagination filled the geometric emptiness with geometric shapes such as a circle, triangle, square, etc.

    The shape of the circle is created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    The shape of the triangle was created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    The square shape is created from a certain amount of closed length, containing a certain amount of area.

    And God saw that the geometric emptiness contained only geometric shapes, and he filled this emptiness with a passive time that stands in its place, and is completely at rest.

    And God will turn passive time into absolute cold, and this is how the limit of cold in the world is determined.

    This is how the wonderful physical creation began, and God saw that it was very good.

    And God saw the lonely state of the passive time that is on the edge of the cold, and added to it the cheerful energy with many faces.

    And God will drown in the cheerful energy the law that says:
    The cheerful energy may change faces, but the changing quantity will never be preserved.

    And so it happened, that the infinite space was filled with passive time and cheerful energy with a conserved amount that changes faces, and changes its appearances.

    And God knows that this is very good.

    And God commanded the passive time and energy to create the material that appears in many physical forms, such as gold, iron, carbon, hydrogen, and more,

    And the creation of the material began.
    The quantitative passive time, connected with the quantitative energy, and by combining certain quantities, a physical form of gold was created.

    And once again the quantitative passive time was connected with the quantitative joyful energy, and from this new combination of quantities, a physical form of iron was created.

    And once again the quantitative passive time was connected with the quantitative cheerful energy, and a new combination of quantities created a physical form of carbon.

    And so the passive time and the cheerful energy created many and varied physical forms, and many and surprising types of matter appeared in the geometric space,

    And so the geometric space became a physical space, which provides material for the creation of stars, with the help of combinations of amounts of passive time and energy.

    And passive time and energy filled the infinite space with matter, from which the stars were formed

    And God commanded the stars to move, only in a spiral-shaped orbit, and it has 3 data,
    The diameter of the screw track, advance angle, and speed.

    This orbital shape made all the stars into one dynamic unit with a disc structure.
    This discus moves forever in a straight line in infinite space full of passive time and energy.

    Within the structure of this disk the stars move.
    Each star moves in an orbit with a unique helical shape and it is this orbit shape that creates a dynamic disk-shaped structure from all the stars.

    The very structure of a discus moves in a straight line.
    The speed of the structure is absolute and cannot be measured

    This dynamic disc-shaped structure in which all the stars in the world are located, was named... Universe.
    Hypothesis - the speed of the universe C12

    The number of stars in the universe is finite but not fixed.
    The universe moves in infinite space full of passive time and energy. During the movement of the universe, new stars are formed from the passive time and energy present in space.

    During the movement of the universe, stars also disintegrate, and they give space their energy, and their passive time.

    And man has not yet been created.
    The active time has not yet been created either,
    Only the passive time exists in reality, and it together with the energy - create the material of the stars..

    The passive time and energy of the sun, spread light.
    This light is waves of passive time, dispersing in the infinite space full of passive time, which is absolute rest and absolute cold.

    There is no void in the world, and it is full of passive time and energy.

    And man had not yet been created, and had not yet spoken,
    When man was created, he received natural knowledge from the Creator.
    With this natural knowledge, man invented language, and did not know that this language is based on actions that lead to knowledge.
    The words brought the tower of Babel.
    The words also brought the active time that exists only in man's imagination, the active time always presents the trap of words that confuses man, and reminds him of the Tower of Babel.

    The man who was created on a planet invented the active time himself. This invention of man created the words past, present, future, which are only in his imagination.

    Man loves the trap of words because it contains love and hope, anger and jealousy, and does not like the dry and quantitative language of numbers.

    With the trap of words man entered heaven, and the trap of words expelled him from heaven.

    The trap of words always works, and since then man has been looking for a new good language, and he has not yet found it.

    A. Asbar

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