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The Psyche spacecraft helps scientists understand what asteroids are made of and prepares the ground for commercial reactors

The composition of asteroid Psyche can tell scientists more about Earth's core because the two objects may have a similar structure. Both probably contain platinum, nickel, iron and maybe even gold - materials of commercial interest

Artist illustration of asteroid 16 Psyche. Credit: Maxar/ASU/P.Rubin/NASA/JPL-Caltech
Artist illustration of asteroid 16 Psyche. Credit: Maxar/ASU/P.Rubin/NASA/JPL-Caltech

The cell phones, computers and televisions that people in the US use every day require metals such as copper, cobalt and platinum to be built. Demand from the electronics industry for these metals is only increasing, and companies are constantly looking for new places on Earth to mine them. Scientists estimate that large amounts of these metals are thousands of kilometers below the Earth's surface, in its molten core, but too deep and too hot to mine. Instead, some companies hope to one day search for deposits that are truly out of this world - on asteroids.

Commercialization of asteroid mining is still a long way off, but in October 2023, NASA launched a science mission to explore the metal-rich asteroid Psyche. The main goal of the mission is to study the composition and structure of this asteroid, which can tell scientists more about the Earth's core because the two objects may have a similar structure. Both probably contain platinum, nickel, iron and maybe even gold - materials of commercial interest.

Experts need to know what's out there on asteroids before considering whether they're worth mining. NASA's Psyche mission can answer some of these questions.

I am a planetary geologist studying other planets such as Mars, Venus and the Moon as well as smaller planetary objects. I will be following the Psyche mission closely, as it is the first time that scientists will be able to study the composition and structure of a possible part of a planetary core similar to that of Earth, without indirect seismic or magnetic measurements, or to replicate the pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's core in our laboratories.

Asteroids come in a variety of sizes. Some are the size of a city, while others are the size of a country. Most asteroids are made of rocks and represent the remnants from the early formation of our solar system about 4.6 billion years ago.

Not all asteroids are the same. Some, like Bennu, the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission, are rich in carbon. These asteroids are very old, and they will teach scientists more about how planets formed and how life may have started on Earth.

Others, like Psyche, are made of metals and may result from one or more collisions between astronomical objects during the formation of the Solar System. These collisions left debris flying in space – including potentially pieces of a planet's metal-rich core. A NASA spacecraft will attack and analyze the surface of Psyche.

Not every mineral deposit on Earth can be mined. Companies first look for deposits with a high level of metal purity. They also research how profitable and feasible it will be to extract the metal before they choose where to mine.

Similarly, before mining an asteroid, companies will need to think about all of these factors, and they will need to come up with the infrastructure needed to remotely mine and transport the metals they mine hundreds of millions of miles back to Earth. The technology to do this is still years away, and transporting metals will require major funding.

Several companies around the world have already begun to think about what would be the best and lowest cost approach, using processes similar to those used on Earth.

The first step would be to find a metal deposit that can be mined. Then, they would drill and extract the metals on the asteroid. One of the most important differences with deep-Earth mining is that each step will be done remotely with spacecraft orbiting the asteroid and robots landing on its surface. A spacecraft will then send the resulting materials back to Earth.

Asteroid mining programs are still in their early stages. Some companies such as Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries, with goals of extracting metals from space, have been acquired by other companies.

Experts don't really know yet how mining precious metals from asteroids will affect the global economy, but these metals could flood the market and lower their value.

The Psyche mission is a huge step in figuring out what metals are circulating in the outer solar system, and it may also answer questions about the composition and properties of Earth's core.

For the article in THE CONVERSATION

More of the topic in Hayadan:

3 תגובות

  1. Platinum iron nickel gold are physical forms
    A physical form is built from combining amounts of passive time and energy

    Details in the article

    Parashat Bereshit of the exact sciences

    The Genesis chapter of the exact sciences explicitly states:

    To present a true description of physical reality, it is necessary to use the ideas of divine creation, and the natural knowledge of man.

    A true description of physical reality will begin like this.
    Genesis 5 God created "continuous quantitative things"

    The hallmark of a continuous quantitative thing (dkr) is simple.
    Whatever quantity we choose from the list, we will always find that in reality there is a larger quantity, and a smaller quantity.
    Any quantity that is chosen from the table, it is between a zero quantity and an infinite quantity.

    With the natural knowledge of man we will arrive at these five dachars.
    Energy, time, length, area and volume.

    Energy and time create the science of physics
    Area length and volume, form the science of geometry.

    Geometry and physics are the exact sciences, because they deal with quantities between zero and infinite quantities.

    The science of physics appeared after the empty infinite space was filled by two continuous quantitative things, namely energy and passive time.

    Passive time is absolute rest and absolute cold, and it fills the infinite space.
    Passive time is at complete rest, and is the medium in which waves of passive time move. These waves transmit sunlight.

    Passive time is a new and revolutionary physical concept, and it exists right in physical reality. On the other hand, the time we all know does not exist in physical reality, and it disappears as soon as you think about it. This elusive time was invented by man for their benefit, and the proper name for it is time.
    Poetic cosmology - from the wonders of passive time

    The passive time envelops us, and we move through it.
    I asked him and I didn't answer,,,,wait a little while he said

    who are you i asked
    I am the passive time, I belong to nature, I lead the light and color

    Where are you the hard,…
    I fill the terrible space, and it is now full of a river.
    The energy is also with me, its power is beyond words, and together we create the material.

    I know the stuff, I said, I touched it and it's right here.
    You will not be able to touch me, but inside me you are free to move.

    Are you really time? After all, the time I know always flies away.

    I'm always here, I'm not a guest

    I am the real time, and the energy is always with me.

    Parashat Beresheit of the exact sciences geometry and physics

    The chapter on the beginning of the exact sciences continues as follows:
    After the infinite space was filled with passive energy and time, the stars were formed. The matter of the stars is formed by combining amounts of passive time and energy.
    The matter of the stars is continuous, and has no gravity.

    Combinations of amounts of passive time and energy created the familiar elements
    Like, gold, carbon, iron and more. Any such conjunction is a physical form, and therefore
    Matter is not a quantitative concept. A geometric shape is also not a quantitative concept, because it is formed by combining quantities of a closed length containing a quantity of area.

    The concepts of geometric shape and physical shape always go together.
    Geometry and physics are the two exact sciences, and the tangible and clear geometry provides clues about the mysterious physics.. Geometry always links us to the concept of form, and physics always links us to the concept of movement.

    And so the chapter of Genesis of the exact sciences continues.
    And God will instill eternal movement in every star, and Noah's star does not exist in reality.
    The name of the collection of ever-moving stars is a universe.

    The shape of the orbit of the stars of the universe is helical (neither straight nor round)
    It is the Borgian orbit of the stars of the universe that allows their integration into a single division that is always moving.
    A screw track has two data - diameter, and advance angle.

    To complete the creation of the universe, it was necessary for the universe to obey a divine law.

    And God established the law of conservation of the amount of energy in the universe, and this law ensured the eternal existence of the universe.

    Everything said here about the universe is not accepted by the scientific establishment.
    Today's scientists believe in the existence of a completely different universe, which is Newton's universe. Newton's universe is in infinite empty space, and this universe is dominated by crude and simple mechanical gravity.

    The idea of ​​gravity was given to the world by Newton 330 years ago.
    Newton believed that there was a mysterious and wonderful force emanating from the depths of the earth, and that its whole function was to knock down objects that fell from our hands.
    Such a mysterious force brings the reader into the world of fairy tales, and the imagination gives this force the image of a friendly, invisible demon.
    Newton gave this demon the nice name "gravitational force".

    Amazingly, Newton carried many believers in the idea of ​​gravity after him, and thus began a strange investigation of physical reality, which contains a mysterious demon.

    Why did Newton invent the delusional idea of ​​gravity.

    Newton did not know that objects that were handed out of our hands fall by themselves, and thus they fulfill a wonderful physical law of nature, which is the law of conservation of energy. This law of conservation was accepted in science only 170 years ago, and Newton obviously did not know about its existence.

    And since Newton did not know that objects fall by themselves, and did not know about the existence of the law of conservation of energy, he invented the idea of ​​gravity.
    This crazy idea lasted for 160 years in all official physics curricula, thus creating a murky scientific swamp, which prevented any possibility of knowing the true structure of the universe.

    Newton's murky scientific quagmire was canceled out by the physical reality that revealed to the world the existence of a miraculous quantitative law,
    And it is the conservation of the amount of energy.

    How is the law of conservation of energy,
    Eliminates the concept of gravity.

    To lift a large stone off the ground to a height of 1 meter, you have to exert yourself and get tired, and this amount of fatigue represents an amount of energy.
    If we release this stone from a height of 1 meter, it will fall down by itself with increasing speed, and its impact will hit the ground. Show exactly the same amount of energy that was needed to lift the stone to a height of 1 meter.

    No gravity is needed to drop the stone down, the stone falls by itself
    down with increasing speed, and thus the law of conservation of energy is fulfilled.
    This is how the wonderful physical reality works, and it is the one that taught scientists about the existence of an important physical law of nature - the law of conservation of energy.
    There are many types of energy, and they can alternate with each other, according to this law of conservation.

    Physical reality operates by itself, according to miraculous laws inherent in it, and researchers of physical reality have begun to discover these laws.
    The law of conservation of energy that was discovered 170 years ago completely cancels out Newton's physics that requires gravity - and it proves that objects that are separated from our hands - fall by themselves, and there is no mysterious demon in physical reality that knocks them down..

    And what turns out? For 170 years, Newton's physics has been taught in universities, and not a single teacher stood up and shouted "there is no gravity, and Newton's physics is incorrect"
    It should be emphasized that Newton did not know that his physics was incorrect, but already 170 years ago, the physics teachers knew about the existence of the law of conservation of energy that eliminates the idea of ​​gravity, but they did not find the courage to tell this to their students

    These 170 unfortunate years produced terrible errors in the concept of matter and the structure of the universe, and the concepts of dark particle matter and dark energy testify to this.

    The time has come to move to a different physics, based on miraculous laws inherent in physical reality. This is the real physics, and it appears in a revolutionary book - which bears the name... "Esbar's magical journey on the wings of natural knowledge"

    This book conflicts with all the physical teachings developed in the last 150 years, and it presents to the world a new physics, and also a new geometry of circles.

    A. Asbar

  2. right. I corrected it, apparently when I uploaded it I thought it had been proofread, but unfortunately it turned out that the two volunteer rewriters were not active because of the war, so I have to rewrite as well. In addition, MINE and DEPOSITS are words with many meanings, hence the translation error.

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