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At the Prime Minister's request: Technion researchers prepared the gift for President Obama

The declarations of independence of the USA and Israel, engraved on a gold-plated silicon chip glued to a Jerusalem stone from the Second Temple period
Nano Declarations of Independence of Israel and the USA presented to President Obama by the Technion. March 2013
At the request of the Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, scientists from the Russell Berry Institute for Research in Nanotechnology at the Technion engraved copies of the Declaration of Independence of the United States and the Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel side by side, using a concentrated beam of gallium ions on a gold-coated silicon chip. The area of ​​the engraving is 0.04 square mm and its depth is 20 nanometers, which is 0.00002 mm. The chip was attached to a stone from Jerusalem from the Second Temple period (XNUMXst century BC to XNUMXst century AD), which was used to seal pottery.

The engraving was performed by accelerating charged atoms, called ions, and grounding them at different points on the surface of the chip. When the ion beam hits the chip it creates a small hole, in this case 20 nm deep. This is similar to digging small holes in the ground using a jet of water coming out of the irrigation pipe, except for the fact that the holes obtained in this way are a million times larger than the holes created by the ion beam.

The silicon chip is coated with a thin gold layer 20 nm thick. When the ion beam creates a pit 20 nm deep at a certain point on the surface of the chip, it removes the gold layer above this point and exposes the silicon underneath. When the chip is examined under an electron microscope, the spots where the silicon is exposed appear darker than the gold-coated areas. In this way it is possible to transfer any image to the chip.
The preparatory work for the excavation lasted about a week. The image engraved on the chip contains over two million dots. Directing the ion beam towards the desired points on the surface of the chip was done using a computer, so the entire etching process took less than an hour.

At the time of engraving, the chip was part of a round silicon wafer with a diameter of 5 cm and a thickness of 0.13 mm. The chip is detached from the wafer by chemically eating the silicon wafer around it in an advanced plasma machine.

The translation of the original image into the engraving instructions was carried out using special software developed for this purpose by Dr. Ohad Zohar, whose doctoral thesis he conducted under the guidance of Prof. Uri Sivan from the Faculty of Physics. The engraving was carried out by Dr. Tzipi Cohen-Haims, the head of the laboratory for the integrated ion microscope, at the Russell Berry Institute. The large team that participated in the work included Prof. Wayne Kaplan, Dean of the Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Prof. Nir Tesler, Head of the Center for Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics, Yaakov Schneider, Chief Engineer at the Center for Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics, Dr. Orna Treniak , senior plasma engineer in the micro and nanofabrication unit and Svetlana Yupis, process engineer in the micro and nanofabrication unit.


  1. Good thing we didn't do anything. I don't want to think what would happen if we withdrew completely and then the Arab Spring broke out.

    We need to keep all the territories under our control until the Arab countries around us stabilize, until then there is no point in giving anything because the leadership there will change several more times and each leadership will come with new demands and say that the previous agreement is void (as the Egyptians are trying to do now)

  2. Max,
    A. You are right - I am severely dyslexic 🙂

    B - This is not a political site - so I will just say briefly that you are right here as well, but even when you don't sit with them, you get grads and hemorrhoids, and that you attack them, and in any situation. I'm just saying that we have to solve it somehow - I don't care how (as long as we don't commit murder because what you hate about yourself, don't do to your neighbors:)). The only problem is that in recent years we have done nothing - and that is the worst - putting up with the situation is the worst possible.

  3. Commentator 1, twenty years of sitting with the Palestinians and what we got was torture and degrees and the sitters got hemorrhoids, note: Yehi writes in XNUMX and not in XNUMX.

  4. What poor flattery this baby. We and you are on a Jerusalem stone forever, and we will expel the Arabs on that occasion.

  5. If they would consult me, I would suggest something like - sit down with the Palestinians to try to end the fighting. I think that would have helped a little more. But hey - I'm sure the Jerusalem stone mixed with a chip will do the job too! Long live the government! Long live Obama

  6. Right. It's a shame they didn't consult with a moron like you about the gift to Obama..

  7. Oh yes, Obama will be happy - she has been waiting for the Declaration of Independence in a 0.04 mm silicon chip coated with gold and a Jerusalem stone since he was a child!

    We are finally making his dream come true!

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